Author: acc945

African American Medical and Dental Pioneers- Part 2

In recognition of Black History Month, during the four weeks of February, we are sharing weekly spotlights of African American graduates from Northwestern’s medical and dental schools. These alumni made significant contributions to the field of medicine, forging the way for many generations to come. Information provided by the Galter Health Sciences Library. “Library Notes,” 2014. ————————————————– Daniel Hale Williams, 1883 MD, is recognized for many firsts in the history of Northwestern University and in the field of medicine in the 20th century, blazing a trail for future generations of African American clinicians and surgeons. He was the first African American student to receive an MD degree from Northwestern and subsequently, the first African American medical faculty member to be hired at Northwestern. Throughout the years, he taught several notable future physicians, including Charles Mayo. In addition to helping found Provident Hospital and Training School for Nurses, the first inter-racial institution of its type in Chicago, he was one of the founders of the National Medical Association. He performed one of the first successful operations of the pericardium and was the first black surgeon to be named as a Fellow of the American College of Surgeons. Dr. Williams began his studies at the medical school at Northwestern University in 1881, following an apprenticeship with Dr. Henry Palmer in Janesville, Wis. He was awarded an MD in 1883 by the Chicago...

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African American Medical and Dental Pioneers- Part 1

In recognition of Black History Month, during the four weeks of February, we are sharing weekly spotlights of African American graduates from Northwestern’s medical and dental schools. These alumni made significant contributions to the field of medicine, forging the way for many generations to come. Information provided by the Galter Health Sciences Library. Library Notes, 2014. ——————————————————— Midian Othello Bousfield, 1909 MD Midian Othello Bousfield was born in Missouri in August 1885. He completed his medical studies at Northwestern University Medical School in 1909, and concluded his formal medical education in 1910, with an internship at the Freedmen’s Hospital in Washington. In 1912, he went to Kansas City as a visiting physician at the City General Hospital and maintained a private practice. He returned to Chicago in 1914. From 1915 to 1919, Dr. Bousfield served as a Chicago Public School health officer, school tuberculosis physician and maintained a private practice. In 1919, he became one of the original incorporators of the Liberty Life Insurance Company and served as medical director and vice president. In 1929, the company merged with two other African American insurance companies as the Supreme Liberty Life Insurance Company. From 1934 to 1942, he was director of Negro Health with the Julius Rosenwald Fund. Through his experience as a physician and businessman, he became focused on the need to improve health care for the underserved African...

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Northwestern’s Free Dispensaries and Outpatient Clinics

In 1857, the Chicago City Dispensary, a charitable outpatient service, was opened.  The dispensary became affiliated with the newly established medical college known as the Medical Department of Lind University in 1859. More than 8,000 patients were treated in the dispensary from 1862 to 1863. Professor Andrews gave a ‘Surgical Clinic’ in the lecture room every Wednesday, with selected patients from the dispensary. Professor Byford gave a ‘Clinic’ on diseases of women and children each Saturday. In 1872, the name was formally changed to the Davis Free Dispensary. Its primary purpose was to provide free medical services to the poor. Prior to this date, the dispensary was not used for teaching purposes; only selected cases were presented to medical students by the attending faculty. The dispensary was added as part of the regular curriculum in 1873 and divided into six departments: medical, surgical, diseases of the chest, gynecological, ophthalmic, and skin diseases, with daily instruction for upper classmen. A group of six or eight students were present at operations and examinations, and witnessed treatment in each department. Each group remained about a week in each department. All the students had the opportunity for learning the practical application of the instruments used in the dispensary departments. One or more of the advanced students were also employed in each department as assistants. In 1874, the number of patients that visited the dispensary was...

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A Brief History of the Northwestern University Dental School

The Dental School was organized in 1891 as a department of the University. The origins of the school date back to 1887 as the University College of Dental and Oral Surgery which was a proprietary institution. Subsequently reorganized as the University Dental College, it had a loose affiliation with Northwestern. Located near the medical school on the old Mercy Hospital campus, an agreement permitted the dental students to receive instruction along with medical students in anatomy, physiology, pathology, histology and materia medica. The standards were high and the program required three years, seven months in each. The additional time and expense discouraged matriculates.  In the spring of 1891 the College was not able to cover institutional expenses. Northwestern President Henry Wade Rogers and his administration took control to insure the survival of dental. Under the umbrella of the University and guidance of the first dean of the Dental School (1891-1897), Edgar Swain, the entering class numbers rose. The school was located on South State St. near East 22nd Street, and then moved into the new Medical School buildings on South Dearborn and East 24th in 1893. In 1895, the University purchased the American College of Dental Surgery, which was located in Chicago’s Loop, merging the two schools into one at the corner of Madison and Franklin Streets, with a combined enrollment of 403. Dr. Swain retired in 1897 and...

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